A data structure is a way of organizing and storing data in a computer so that it can be accessed and manipulated efficiently. Think of it as the blueprint for how data is stored and organized in a computer's memory. Data structures define the relationships between the data elements and the operations that can be performed on them. Examples of data structures include arrays, linked lists, stacks, queues, trees, and graphs. Each data structure has its own strengths and weaknesses, making them suitable for different kinds of tasks and scenarios.
In C, for a heterogeneous linked list, you'd use a pointer to a structure with a void pointer (void *) for data. This enables storing various data types. Example:
struct Node { void *data; struct Node *next; };
In RDBMS (Relational Database Management Systems), major data structures include tables (implemented as arrays or linked lists), indexes (such as B-trees), and hash tables for efficient data retrieval. In the Network Data Model, major data structures include records (nodes) connected by pointers, similar to a graph structure, allowing for complex relationships between data entities. In the Hierarchical Data Model, major data structures include trees where each node can have one parent but multiple children, representing hierarchical relationships between data entities.
Data structures are extensively applied in areas such as:
A priority queue can be implemented using a single queue, but with multiple queues, one for each priority level, it can be more efficient. Hence, the minimum number of queues needed to implement a priority queue is one, but multiple queues can improve performance for certain operations.
Prefix notation (also known as Polish notation) places the operator before its operands. Postfix notation (also known as Reverse Polish notation) places the operator after its operands.
Prefix notation: + * + A B C - - D E ^ + F G
Postfix notation: A B + C * D E - F G + ^ -
In the evaluation of arithmetic expressions using prefix and postfix forms, the following notations are used:
The primary data structure used to perform recursion is the call stack. In languages like C, C++, and Java, the call stack is used to keep track of function calls and their local variables during recursion, enabling the program to return to previous states as recursion unwinds.
Sorting is not possible by using the "Deletion" method.
The methods available in storing sequential files include:
Few applications of tree data structures include:
For tree construction, a linked list is a suitable efficient data structure because it allows dynamic memory allocation and flexible node connections, essential for constructing trees with variable numbers of child nodes.
The algorithm used to solve the 8 Queens problem is typically a backtracking algorithm.
Balancing in an AVL tree is performed when the balance factor of a node becomes greater than 1 or less than -1, indicating an imbalance in the tree.
When overlapping and collision occur simultaneously, the bucket size in a hash table should be increased.
Hashing functions can be classified based on various methods by which the key value is found:
Collision resolution techniques in hashing include:
Open Addressing:
Chaining:
In Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS), the B-tree data structure is often used for efficient internal storage representation. B-trees allow for fast retrieval, insertion, and deletion of data in large datasets, making them well-suited for managing indexes and organizing data on disk.
A spanning tree of a graph is a subgraph that is a tree and connects all the vertices of the original graph without forming any cycles. It spans all the vertices of the original graph while minimizing the number of edges.
No, the minimum spanning tree (MST) of a graph does not necessarily give the shortest distance between any two specified nodes. The MST minimizes the total edge weight while connecting all vertices, but it does not guarantee the shortest path between any pair of nodes. For shortest paths, algorithms like Dijkstra's or Bellman-Ford are used.
Sequential is the simplest file structure.
A linked list is generally considered a linear data structure because its elements are arranged in a sequential manner, and each element points to the next one in the sequence.